Embryonic origins of the skin

The outer covering of all chordate animals consists of an epidermis which is derived from the surface ectoderm, and the dermis, which is of mesodermal origin in the trunk and tail, but derived from head mesenchyme anterior to the otic capsule. In most vertebrates there is also a deeper layer called the subcutaneous region, or hypodermis. It attaches the outer covering (epidermis and dermis) to the anatomical structures beneath the skin. The hypodermis, like the dermis, is of mesoderm origin in the trunk and tail, and of head mesenchyme in the region of the face and head.